PTE写作- Summarize Written Text (Free Trial)

PTE写作- Summarize Written Text (Free Trial)

Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. Type your answer in the box below (5-75 words). You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

 

According to biochemical study, there is a biological basis to love. The feeling of romantic love is attributed to powerful hormones and chemicals being released into the brain. The process of falling in love can be broken down into three fairly distinct phases based on the hormones and chemicals dominating each phase.

In the first phase, the hormones, testosterone and estrogen play an important role. Although testosterone has the reputation as the male hormone, it is also present in women and has many effects in the brain, two of which are to prompt partner seeking and to alert the presence of possible partners. In essence, these hormones motivate the search of an emergency prospective partners to fall for.

People experience infatuation in the second phase, when there are some powerful amphetamines being released into the brain. It is a kind of stimulant that makes us feel alert. Another chemical in the brain, dopamine, has a physical effect. Once stimulated by dopamine, one may have increased heart rate and blood pressure, and feel unusually communicative. It also has a more powerful psychological effect by enhancing emotional responses to feelings of pleasure and excitement.

From a social science perspective, anthropologists describe romantic love as a high-intensity social ritual. In other words, it is strongly linked to a prescribed form of a formal ceremony. Romantic love enables people to focus on a common activity, which is a characteristic of a ritual. People who are in love are so engaged with their common activity that other people and activity seem to fade away.

 

 

版本一

Having a biological basis, romantic love, which anthropologists describe as a social ritual that enables people to concentrate, can be divided into three phases based on distinct hormones and chemicals, including testosterone and estrogen in the first phase that prompt partner searching, amphetamines in the second phase that make people alert, and dopamine that has a physical effect like increasing heart rate.

(62 words)

版本二

Romantic love, which has a biological basis and is described by anthropologists as a social ritual, can be divided into three phases based on distinct hormones and chemicals, including testosterone and estrogen that prompt partner searching, amphetamines that make people experience infatuation, and dopamine that has both physical and psychological effects.

(51 words)

题目解析

本文的主要内容在第一句话就已经引出:主题是love的biological basis。然后介绍了falling in love的3 phases,其中最重要的区别based on hormones and chemicals。

接下来的内容详细介绍了这三个phases,不过值得注意的是,1st phase出现在第二段,2nd & 3rd phase都是在第三段;每个phase除了介绍了这步涉及到的hormone, 还提到了他们相关的effects。这几点都可以在总结中提到。

第一段是全文的索引,已经帮助我们很好的先预览了一下文章的内容,其中重要的内容包括:

there is a biological basis to love; there are three phases in the process of falling in love based on the difference of hormones and chemicals

第二段主要讲述了第一个阶段的内容,主要内容有:

(the hormones) testosterone and estrogen play an important role in the first phase (注意这里的hormones不是前文中的“激素”,而是用了它的另一个意思这里指“性激素”,为后边的testosterone和estrogen做一个归类,字数如果非常有限的情况下,这里可以考虑用hormones来替代t和s);

they prompt partners seeking and alert the presence of partners/ motivate the search of prospective partner(两种性激素的作用,这句是更深一个层级的细节,两句在意思上可以替换,在最终总结的时候可以酌情加入);

第三段讲了第二和第三个阶段的内容,要点包括:

amphetamines released in the brain bring infatuation in the second phase;

amphetamines can make people feel alert (这种chemical的作用是更深一个层级的细节,如果字数有限,不一定要加入);

dopamine has a physical effect in the third phase;

dopamine can increase heart rate and blood pressure, make people feel communicative, and enhance emotional responses to pleasures and excitement (physical effect的更深一个层级的细节,如果字数有限,不一定要加入)

dopamine has a more powerful psychological effect;

第四段和文章的核心概念biological basis没有太大的关系,可以不提或者简单带过,细节(如enables people to focus)也不需要保留。

解题思路

第一步:摘抄文章的重点  对于写作目标分数65分的同学,任务是抓住粗体的句子内容,尽量把句子内容简化合成一段,形成总结。对于写作目标分数79或者以上的同学,划线片段的文章主要内容要尽量整理出来,并且有所取舍保证字数达到标准,保证语法不错的情况下,形成一个通顺的句子。

According to biochemical study, there is a biological basis to love. The feeling of romantic love is attributed to powerful hormones and chemicals being released into the brain. The process of falling in love can be broken down into three fairly distinct phases based on the hormones and chemicals dominating each phase.

In the first phase, the hormones, testosterone and estrogen play an important role. Although testosterone has the reputation as the male hormone, it is also present in women and has many effects in the brain, two of which are to prompt partner seeking and to alert the presence of possible partners. In essence, these hormones motivate the search of an emergency prospective partners to fall for.

People experience infatuation in the second phase, when there are some powerful amphetamines being released into the brain. It is a kind of stimulant that makes us feel alert. Another chemical in the brain, dopamine, has a physical effect. Once stimulated by dopamine, one may have increased heart rate and blood pressure, and feel unusually communicative. It also has a more powerful psychological effect by enhancing emotional responses to feelings of pleasure and excitement.

From a social science perspective, anthropologists describe romantic love as a high-intensity social ritual. In other words, it is strongly linked to a prescribed form of a formal ceremony. Romantic love enables people to focus on a common activity, which is a characteristic of a ritual. People who are in love are so engaged with their common activity that other people and activity seem to fade away.

这里我们根据划线的内容,摘抄重要的词和短语:

biological basis to love/process of falling in love/three phases based on the hormones and chemicals

the hormones, testosterone and estrogen/motivate the search of an emergency prospective partners

infatuation/powerful amphetamines

dopamine/physical effect/psychological effect

anthropologists/social ritual

第二步:重组时,先找到主要论点和辅助论点

Main idea: The process of falling in love has a biological basis and three phases based on different hormones and chemicals.

Supporting idea 1: Testosterone and estrogen motivate the search of partners.

Supporting idea 2: Amphetamines cause infatuation whereas dopamine has physical and psychological effects.

Additional idea (optional): The process of falling in love is described by anthropologists as a social ritual.

第三步:拼接句子,组织语法,选用合适的词汇

Having a biological basis, 建议考生尽量把 核心概念 (比如这篇的romantic love) 作为开头。但有时候,在把核心概念作为主句的主语写下来之后,如果再想添加信息,前边加个动词+ing的从句是个不用太费力气,而且效果还不错的写法。 romantic love, which anthropologists describe as a social ritual that enables people to concentrate, can be divided into three phases based on distinct hormones and chemicals, including testosterone and estrogen in the first phase that prompt partner searching, amphetamines in the second phase that make people alert, and dopamine that has a physical effect like increasing heart rate. (62 words) 对于写作目标分数65分或者对自己的归纳能力还不够有信心的同学,这个版本已经够好了。如果总结完了文章的内容,还不确定能把握和取舍重点,可以保留一些细节。

 

第四步:改正语法错误和进一步地优化 整体字数尽量在四十至六十字之间

Romantic love, which has a biological basis and is described by anthropologists as a social ritual, can be divided into three phases based on distinct hormones and chemicals, including testosterone and estrogen that prompt partner searching, amphetamines that make people experience infatuation, and dopamine that has both physical and psychological effects.

(51 words) 对于写作目标分数79分或以上的同学和对自己的归纳能力比较有信心的同学,可以参考这个更精简的版本。如果能够把握和取舍重点,细节可以不保留。

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